Kullu was a princely state of India under the British rule. It came into being as district of Himachal Pradesh on 1st November, 1966 on the re-organization of states. It extends from the town Rampur in the south to the Rohtang Pass in the north and share common boundaries in the districts of Lahoul Spiti on the north and east, districts of Kinnaur on the south- west, Shimla on the south, Mandi district on the south-west and west, Kagra distrit on the north-east
The Kullu valley is known as the valley of Gods. Places of tourists interests are : Arjun Gufa, Nehru Kund, Manikaran, Rohtang Pass and Naggar. The beautifull hill station Manali is situated north to this town. It is blessed with a climate which is suitable for growing of off-season vegetables and temperate fruits like Apple, Peach, Pear, Plum etc.
According to the Geographical survey of India, the total area of Kulllu is 5,503 Sq. Kms. Which contribute 9.88% area of the state. The landscape of district is mountainous imbedded with revers and valleys. The altitude of the district ranges from 500 mts to 5000 mtrs above the mean sea level, but the habitation is only upto 3500 mtrs. The district comprses of physiographical area viz. Ujhi, Lug, Kharahal and Seraj areas. The Seraj area is further divided in to Inner Seraj and Outer SEraj. The Inner Seraj includes Banjar Development Block and Outer SEraj includes Anni and Nirmand Development Blocks. It has been divided into 4 Tehsils, 2 Sub Tehsils, 4 Sub Divisions and 5 Development Blocks namely Kullu, Anni, Nirmand, Banjar and Naggar. Under this, there are 204 Panchayats covering 173 villages. The major religions of the district are Hindu and Bodh and spoken languages are mainly Kulvi and Hindi. Literacy rate in the district is 73.36 % and population as per census of 2001is 3,81,571 having population density of 69 per sq.Km
Kullu district comes under sub rropical zone. The winter spreads from Nov. to March, spring in April to and May , Summer June to September. The climate of the district is cold and dry with moderate summers and severe winters. The minimum temperature in the winter season goes to 5.2 c and rise up to maximum 36 c to 40 c in summer. The annual rainfall in this area is 1000 mm approximately.
Kullu town is well connected by air. The nearest airport is Kullu – Manali airport which is 10 km. apart from the town and located just near to the bus stand Bhuntar. Daily flights are available to and from Delhi, Chandigarh and Jubbar Hatti (Shimla). It hardly takes one and half hour to reach Kullu- Manali from New Delhi. Joginder Nagar is the nearest railway station lacated at a distance of 120 Km far on Mandi Pathankot way. Kiratpur is another railway station 200 Km far on Kullu Chandigarh Highway. Another nearest railway statation is Una which is approximately 260 Km from Kullu.
The district of Lahaul-Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of Lahaul andSpiti. The present administrative centre is Keylong in Lahaul. Before the two districts were merged, Kardang was the capital of Lahaul, and Dhankar the capital of Spiti. The district was formed in 1960.
Kunzum la or the Kunzum Pass (altitude 4,551 m; 14,931 ft) is the entrance pass to the Spiti Valley from Lahaul. It is 21 km fromChandra Tal. This district is connected to Manali through the Rohtang Pass. To the south, Spiti ends 24 km from Tabo, at the Sumdo where the road enters Kinnaur and joins with National Highway No. 22.
The two valleys are quite different in character. Spiti is more barren and difficult to cross, with an average elevation of the valley floor of 4,270 m (14,009 ft). It is enclosed between lofty ranges, with the Spiti river rushing out of a gorge in the southeast to meet the Sutlej River. It is a typical mountain desert area with an average annual rainfall of only 170 mm (6.7 inches). The language, culture, and populations of Lahaul and Spiti are closely related. Generally the Lahaulis are of Tibetan and Indo-Aryan descent, while the Spiti Bhotia are more similar to the Tibetans, owing to their proximity to Tibet. Fairer skin and hazel-colored eyes are commonly seen among the Lahaulis.
The languages of both the Lahauli and Spiti Bhutia belong to the Tibetan family. They are very similar to the Ladakhi and Tibetansculturally, as they had been placed under the rule of the Guge and Ladakh kingdoms at occasional intervals.
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Potato farming is common. Occupations include animal husbandry, working in government programs, government services, and other businesses and crafts that include weaving. Houses are constructed in the Tibetan architectural style, as the land in Lahul and Spiti is mountainous and quite prone to earthquakes. The harsh conditions of Lahoul permit only scattered tufts of hardy grasses and shrubs to grow, even below 4,000 meters. Glacier lines are usually found at 5000 meters.
The natural scenery and Buddhist monasteries, such as Ki, Dhankar, Shashur, Guru Ghantal, and Tayul Gompas, are the main tourist attractions of the region. One of the most interesting places is the Tabo Monastery, located 45 km from Kaza, Himachal Pradesh, the capital of the Spiti region. This monastery rose to prominence when it celebrated its thousandth year of existence in 1996. It houses a collection of Buddhist scriptures, Buddhist statues and Thangkas. The ancient gompa is finished with mud plaster, and contains several scriptures and documents. Lama Dzangpo heads the gompa here. There is a modern guest house with a dining hall and all facilities are available.
Another famous gompa, Kardang Monastery, is located at an elevation of 3,500 metres across the river, about 8 km from Keylong. Kardang is well connected by the road via the Tandi bridge which is about 14 km from Keylong. Built in the 12th century, this monastery houses a large library of Buddhist literature including the main Kangyur and Tangyur scriptures
The treacherous weather in Lahaul and Spiti permits visitors to tour only between the months of June to October, when the roads and villages are free of snow and the high passes (Rothang La and Kunzum La) are open. It is possible to access Spiti from Kinnaur (along the Sutlej) all through the year, although the road is sometimes temporarily closed by landslides or avalanches.
The net cultivated area of the district Kullu is 64,973 Hect. Out of which 2.828 Hect. Falls under irrigated area. The production of the district in Agricultural Produce i.e. Veg. 90115 mt. in 4125 Ha. And Fruit 78547 mt. in 26129 Ha. Lift irrigation, Kuhals the main sources of irrigation. The elevation varies between 500 meters to 5000 meters above mean sea level. While the net cultivated area of Laoul Spiti is 3043 Ha. Out of that 333 Ha. Area is under fruit production and rest of area is under vegetable and other crops.