History of Shimla goes back to the period of Anglo-Gurkha war in the beginning of 19th century. In 1804 the Gurkhas , who had suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Sikhs at the battle of Kangra, a hill fortress about sixty miles from Shimla, where according to some accounts they lost thousand of men in the fight and many others from disease, commenced to ravage the states and hills surrounding Shimla. Gurkhas built many forts around Shimla. One of these strongholds, the Jagatgarh fortress, was the origin of the modern Jutogh, the well known military cantonment adjoining Shimla. By 1808 the invaders had conquered all the fortified posts between the Jamuna and Satluj, and from their capital Arki began their ruthless rule over the neighbouring hill states, untill at length the people in their wretchedness appealed to the British for help. A small British force under Major General 'Sir David Ochterlony' was despatched to liberate the hill men from Gurkhas. Majority of hill chiefs responded to the call and joined the British forces. The rivals were engaged in the toughest battle at 3750 ft high Ramgarh fort at Nalagarh. A decisive battle took place near the fort at Malaon in which superior guns of the British overpowered the enemy. The battle of Malaon on 15th May 1815 ended the dream of the Gurkhas, to rule over this part of the land for any longer. After few days, an official declaration was made according to which all Chieftains who had joined British in expelling the Gurkhas were restored with their land under the British protection. The maharaja of Patiala who has also rendered invaluable services to the British was rewarded with land in the neighbourhood of the area now comprising Shimla. After the defeat of Gurkhas they were forced to sign the 'Treaty of Sanjauli' . The company retained the strategic forts of Sabathu, Kotgarh, Ramgarh and Sandoch.
Present day Shimla District comprises of 19 erstwhile hill states mainly Balson, Bushahr, Bhaji and Koti, Darkoti, Tharoch & Dhadi,Kumharsain, Khaneti & Delath, Dhami, Jubbal , Keothal, Rawingarh, Ratesh, Sangri.
Bushahr was one of the oldest of the hill states after Kashmir in the Western Himalayas. According to one legend .the Bushahr dynasty was founded by 'Pradhuman', the son of Lord Krishna. In order to marry the daughter of Banasur, the local chief of shonitpur (Sarahan), Pradhuman is said to have come to that place and after the death of Banasur in an encounter with him, he became the chief of Bushar and Kinnaur regions, since Banasur has no son. According to C.F.Kennedy , Bushar was founded by Danbar Singh an immigrant Rajput from Deccan in 1412 A.D. In 1914 Britishers recognised Padam Singh as legitimate heir and was crowned Raja of Rampur Bushahr. Ultimately in March, 1948 Rampur Bushahr became part and parcel of province of Himachal Pradesh.
Jubbal one of the Shimla Hill States with an area of 288 Sq miles was originally tributary to Sirmaur, but after Gurkha war, it became independent. Raja Karam Chand was the founder of the Jubbal State. Jubbal merged with the Indian Union after independence and became a part of Himachal Pradesh on 15th April, 1948. at the time of merger 'Dig Vijay Singh ' was the ruler of the state.
Shimla District in its present form came into existence from 1st September 1972 on the reorganisation of the districts of the state. After the reorganisation , the erstwhile Mahasu district lost its entity and its major portion was merged with Shimla. Shimla district derives its name from Shimla town, the district headquarters and now state capital of Himachal Pradesh
The Shimla District comprises of 7 Sub-Divisions, 12 Tehsils and
5 Sub Tehsils
Shimla District lies between the longitude 77o-0" and 78o-19" east and latitude 30o-45" and 31o-44" north. It is bounded by Mandi and Kullu in the north, Kinnaur in the east, the state of Uttaranchal in the south, Sirmaur, district in the west. The elevation of the district ranges from 300 to 6000 metres. The topology of the district is rugged and tough. Shimla district derives its name from Shimla town which was once a small village. Shimla district in its present form came into existence from 1st Sept,1972 on the reorganisation of the districts of the state.
The total population of Shimla Distt is 7,21,745 (2001 Census). There are 898 females per 1000 males.77% polulation is rural and rest 23 % urban. Literacy rate is 79.2%. Male literacy is 87.72 % and female litracy is 70.62 %. Geographical area of distt. Is 5131 sq KM. Major religion is Hindu and languages spoken are hindi and pahari.
The climate in Shimla is predominantly cold during winters, and moderately warm during summers. The temperatures range from 3.95 °C (39.11 °F) to 32.95 °F) over the year. The average temperature during summer is between 14 °C and 20 °C, and between -7 °C and 10 °C in winter. Monthly precipitation varies between 24 mm in November to 415 mm in July. It is typically around 45 mm per month during winter and spring and around 115 mm in June as the monsoon approaches. The average total annual precipitation is 1520 mm (62 inches). Snowfall in the region, which usually took place in the month of December has lately (over the last fifteen years) been happening in January or early February every year.
Kinnaur surrounded by the Tibet to the east, in the northeast corner of Himachal Pradesh, about 235 kms from Shimla is a tremendously beautiful district having the three high mountains ranges i.e. Zanskar, Greater Himalayas and Dhauladhar, enclosing valleys of Sutlej, Spiti, Baspa and their tributaries. All the valleys are strikingly beautiful. The slopes are covered with thick wood, orchards, fields and picturesque hamlets. The much religious Shivlinga lies at the peak of Kinner Kailash mountain. The beautiful district was opened for the outsiders in 1989. The old Hindustan-Tibet road passes through the Kinnaur valley along the bank of river Sutlej and finally enters Tibet at Shipki La Pass. And it is not only the scenic beauty which appeals to the young and old alike but also the life styles of the people, their culture, heritage, customs and traditions
According to Punjab states Gazetteer-Shimla hill States from 1803 to 1815 the earstwhile states of Bushahr faced the menace of Gurkha invasions. Immediate after the death of Raja Kehri Singh, The Gurkhas made massive attack on Bushahr. The minor ruler and his mother who could not withstand the attack fled away to Namru leaving behind a rich treasury at Sarahan. The Gurkhas looted the treasury and completely destroyed the records of the state. Keeping Gurkhas of Nepal had extended their dominions greatly during the end of the eighteen century. Amar Singh Thapa, the Gurkha leader went up to kangra valley. He was drawn from the valley by the superior forces of Ranjit Singh and those of raja Sansar Chand of Kangra. The tract between theSatluj and Jamuna came under British protection by the treaty of 1809 between Ranjit Singh and the British Govt. Thus the British Government took positive step to expel the Gurkhas and after a long and desperate struggle, completely defeated Amar Singh Thapa on 15 th April, 1815. On the conclusion of the Gurkha war Raja Mahendra Singh was granted a sanad on 6th November,1815. It gave Khaneti and Delath thakurais to Bushahr and a part of Rawin, which was a Distt. of the state was transfered to Keonthal, Kumharsain was constituted a separate Thakurai.
From the foregoing account it would appear that during the princely days Kinnaur valley acted as a bulwark to the Bushahr state. However with the lapse of paramountcy, the Kinnaur then known as Chini tehsil was merged to form a part of then Mahasu district. The pargana Atharahs Bish comprised of village Nichar, Sungra, Kangos, Ponda, Baro, Bari, Tranda, Chaura village with patwar circle at Ponda. The Paragana Bish consisted of the revenue estates of Nathpa, Kandhar, Barakamba, Chhotakamba, Garshu and Rupi with patwar circle at Rupi were in Rampur tehsil.
In fact then Chini tehsil covered the entire Kinnaur valley beyond Wangtu which was created in 1891 by the then ruler Tika Raghunath Singh. Thus 1891 onwards Chinni tehsil continued to be in existence with its vast area beyond Wangtu uptill 1960. Since 1947 it was a tehsil of the then Mahasu district. By 1960 the importance of reorganising border area was realised and consequently in view of ethnic and cultural considerations the areas which were partly in Rampur tehsil were reorganised into a separate District forming the present Kinnaur district.
Kinnaur is situated 77°45' and 79°00'35'' East Longitudes and between 31°55'50'' and 32°05'15'' North Latitudes. Kinnaur shares its Eastern boundary with Tibet. On the South and South Eastern sides, it has Uttar Kashi district of Uttar Pradesh. On the Western side lies the Shimla district and on the North and North-West is situated Lahaul and Spiti.
Fact File :
The total population of Kinnaur Distt is 78334 (2001 Census). There are 857 females per 1000 males.100% population is rural. Density of population is 12 person per sq KM. Literacy rate is 74.35%. Male literacy is 84.3 % and female litracy is 64.4 %. Geographical area of distt. Is 6401 sq KM.