The district is located in outer Himalayas which are commonly called as Shivaliks. The district is located between 77°-01’- 12” to 77°-49’- 40” East longitudes and 30°-22’- 30” to 31°-01’- 20” North latitudes.The district is predominantly mountaneous with deep valleys lying between ranges of varying elevation. Longest length from west to east is 77 kilometres and maximum width is 76 kilometres . The district is bounded by Shimla district in the north, Tons and Yamuna rivers in the east, Haryana in the south and west and Solan district in the north-west. Adminstratively, the district is being looked after by six tehsils, four sub-tehsils and six development blocks namely Nahan, Paonta Sahib, Shillai, Sangrah, Rajgarh and Pachhad at Sarahan. The district is divided into three Sub-divisions namely Nahan, Paonta Sahib and Rajgarh.
The district has 228 Gram Panchayats and 968 villages. The geographical area of district is 2825 square kilometers. The population of the district according to 2001 census is 4.58.351 comprising of 2, 41,109 males and 2, 17,242 females.
The winter prevails from November to February, spring in March, summer from April to June and monsoon in July-August. The minimum temperature in the winter is as low as 0°C and rises to 42°C in the summer. The average annual rainfall during the year is about 1100-1600mm. A major portion of precipitation (75 per cent) is received during monsoon period. The elevation varies between 650- 2500 metres above mean sea level.
Agriculture is the primary occupation of the district as about 90 per cent of its population resides in rural areas. The total area as reported by revenue papers is 2, 24,752 hectares out of this 41,626 hectares is net sown area. The net irrigated sown area is 14,405 hectares which contributes about 35 per cent of net sown area. Two major harvests, Kharif (Paddy, Maize) and Rabi (Wheat, Sarson) are cultivated in the district.
The Kharif crops are sown in June-July including Maize, Paddy, Potato, Ginger, Turmeric, Tomato, etc. The area under Kharif crops is slightly more than Rabi crops. Wheat, Sarson, Peas, Garlic, etc. are the major crops grown in the Rabi season.